Interactive: Projections for Texas Occupations in 2018

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When Tom Pauken was appointed chairman of the Texas Workforce Commission in 2008, he said, one thing particularly surprised him: “this notion that everybody needs to go to a four-year university and blue-collar jobs are not as good as ‘knowledge industry’ jobs.”

According to the workforce commission, the occupation expected to add the most jobs in Texas between 2008 and 2018 is fast-food services.

The availability of jobs in Texas has been a point of state pride and was — at least, at one time — a cornerstone of Gov. Rick Perry’s pitch to voters. And as Pauken has eagerly pointed out in public speeches, a significant portion of the state’s job offerings don’t require four years’ worth of tuition, which at Texas’ public universities can set you back an average of more than $26,000.

Pauken is calling for a greater emphasis on the skilled trades - many of which only require up to two years of post-secondary work - throughout the education pipeline.

He made this case at a recent higher-education panel discussion held by the Texas Public Policy Foundation, an Austin-based conservative think tank, where he was joined by Texas Higher Education Commissioner Raymund Paredes.

Paredes argued against the de-emphasis on four-year programs. He said that the state’s problem was not of having too many of one type of degree over another, but of needing comprehensive reform. “We need to improve our productivity in all of these areas,” he said of all levels of higher education.

“College is still worth it,” Paredes said. As evidence, he pointed out that people with advanced degrees have lower unemployment rates and most jobs that pay well require some form of post-secondary credential.

But comparing certain jobs may leave some wondering what they got in return for taking on all that student debt.

In 2009, according to workforce commission data, rotary drill operators — a job that primarily requires on-the-job training — could make an average annual wage of more than $72,000 in the Texas oil and gas industry. That’s more than the average wage of a number of professions requiring master’s and doctoral degrees.

“It’s costing us more to educate people,” Pauken told the Tribune. “At the same time, are we educating them for the right fields where the demand is?”

To provide a better sense of what opportunities are out there for present and future job seekers in Texas, we’ve put together the following graphs and database of the workforce commission’s projections.

In the top graphs, you can see the projections for the total jobs by category in 2018, which professions are adding the most jobs and which will experience the most rapid growth.

Below, you can search different professions based on average annual wages, preferred level of education, anticipated growth rate, expected annual job openings and more.


2008 Projections for Texas Occupations with Preferred Education and Wages
Source: Texas Workforce Commission

(Click on the headings to sort the table)


Occupational Title Average Employment 2008 Average Employment 2018 Number Change 2008-2018 Percent Growth 2008-2018 Annual Average Job Openings Preferred Education 2009 Annual Wages 2009 Hourly Wages
Biomedical Engineers 650 1,150 500 77% 65 Bachelor's degree $66,729 $32.08
Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage 880 980 100 11% 30 Postsecondary vocational training $65,063 $31.28
Network Systems & Data Communications Analysts 19,160 29,490 10,330 54% 1,380 Bachelor's degree $76,420 $36.74
Gaming Managers 20 30 10 50% 0 Work experience in a related occupation $112,820 $54.24
Petroleum Engineers 13,440 20,140 6,700 50% 950 Bachelor's degree $126,241 $60.69
Athletic Trainers 1,560 2,300 740 47% 125 Bachelor's degree $45,873 -
Loan Officers 18,730 21,980 3,250 17% 530 Moderate-term on-the-job training $67,836 $32.61
Tax Preparers 6,520 6,870 350 5% 140 Moderate-term on-the-job training $37,723 $18.14
Financial Examiners 2,150 3,130 980 46% 140 Bachelor's degree $76,359 $36.71
Medical Scientists, Ex. Epidemiologists 3,670 5,320 1,650 45% 240 Doctoral degree $64,386 $30.95
Biochemists & Biophysicists 740 1,060 320 43% 55 Doctoral degree $85,180 $40.95
Special Education Teachers, Middle School 6,990 9,920 2,930 42% 475 Bachelor's degree $49,856 -
Physician Assistants 4,100 5,810 1,710 42% 245 Master's degree $88,675 $42.63
Special Education Teachers, Preschool, Kindergarten, & Elementary School 14,410 20,410 6,000 42% 975 Bachelor's degree $49,127 -
Architectural & Civil Drafters 11,250 12,000 750 7% 315 Postsecondary vocational training $45,546 $21.90
Radiation Therapists 870 1,220 350 40% 50 Associate degree $77,006 $37.02
Elementary School Teachers, Ex. Special Education 156,930 218,030 61,100 39% 9,680 Bachelor's degree $49,972 -
Physical Therapist Assistants 3,880 5,390 1,510 39% 205 Associate degree $61,705 $29.67
Middle School Teachers, Ex. Special & Vocational Education 77,800 107,820 30,020 39% 4,775 Bachelor's degree $50,350 -
Electrical & Electronics Drafters 3,300 3,470 170 5% 85 Postsecondary vocational training $50,408 $24.23
Occupational Therapist Assistants 1,870 2,580 710 38% 95 Associate degree $65,894 $31.68
Kindergarten Teachers, Ex. Special Education 14,710 20,200 5,490 37% 845 Bachelor's degree $47,455 -
Compliance Officers, Ex. Agriculture, Construction, Health & Safety, & Transportation 23,120 31,600 8,480 37% 1,095 Long-term on-the-job training $53,368 $25.66
Veterinary Technologists & Technicians 6,970 9,520 2,550 37% 430 Associate degree $27,417 $13.18
Instructional Coordinators 11,960 16,330 4,370 37% 700 Master's degree $62,036 $29.83
Audiologists 520 710 190 37% 30 First professional degree $75,650 $36.37
Cardiovascular Technologists & Technicians 3,030 4,130 1,100 36% 155 Associate degree $51,381 $24.70
Physical Therapists 11,880 16,150 4,270 36% 575 Master's degree $83,020 $39.91
Special Education Teachers, Secondary School 7,420 10,080 2,660 36% 455 Bachelor's degree $50,920 -
Personal Financial Advisors 16,530 22,380 5,850 35% 765 Bachelor's degree $82,967 $39.89
Mechanical Drafters 7,310 7,540 230 3% 180 Postsecondary vocational training $51,436 $24.73
Occupational Therapists 7,520 10,130 2,610 35% 395 Master's degree $78,467 $37.72
Veterinarians 4,150 5,590 1,440 35% 220 First professional degree $99,236 $47.71
Drafters, All Other 1,110 1,160 50 5% 30 Postsecondary vocational training $52,727 $25.35
Dental Hygienists 10,310 13,870 3,560 35% 565 Associate degree $66,798 $32.11
Medical Equipment Repairers 3,970 5,340 1,370 35% 250 Associate degree $39,421 $18.95
Surveying & Mapping Technicians 8,170 9,870 1,700 21% 315 Moderate-term on-the-job training $34,500 $16.59
Social & Human Service Assistants 16,160 19,030 2,870 18% 625 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,666 $14.74
Court Reporters 1,560 1,950 390 25% 65 Postsecondary vocational training $54,345 $26.13
Respiratory Therapists 8,940 11,950 3,010 34% 465 Associate degree $51,384 $24.70
Title Examiners, Abstractors, & Searchers 10,490 10,930 440 4% 200 Moderate-term on-the-job training $47,118 $22.65
Self-Enrichment Education Teachers 10,470 13,860 3,390 32% 500 Work experience in a related occupation $35,947 $17.28
Registered Nurses 166,240 219,880 53,640 32% 8,270 Associate degree $64,667 $31.09
Legal Support Wkrs, All Other 2,030 2,300 270 13% 55 Moderate-term on-the-job training $51,635 $24.82
Museum Technicians & Conservators 530 700 170 32% 30 Bachelor's degree $38,126 $18.33
Preschool Teachers, Ex. Special Education 36,050 46,830 10,780 30% 1,805 Postsecondary vocational training $26,695 $12.83
Emergency Management Specialists 800 1,050 250 31% 45 Work experience in a related occupation $73,708 $35.44
Speech-Language Pathologists 10,840 14,210 3,370 31% 530 Master's degree $64,990 $31.25
Library Technicians 4,420 5,370 950 21% 295 Postsecondary vocational training $26,070 $12.53
Coaches & Scouts 11,860 15,520 3,660 31% 590 Long-term on-the-job training $37,566 -
Teacher Assistants 87,110 112,150 25,040 29% 4,350 Short-term on-the-job training $20,453 -
Secondary School Teachers, Ex. Special & Vocational Education 101,530 132,570 31,040 31% 6,055 Bachelor's degree $52,270 -
Interpreters & Translators 3,970 5,180 1,210 30% 215 Long-term on-the-job training $40,321 $19.39
Floral Designers 4,600 4,740 140 3% 155 Short-term on-the-job training $22,753 $10.94
Vocational Education Teachers, Secondary School 9,660 12,590 2,930 30% 575 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $52,392 -
Fire Fighters 22,300 29,050 6,750 30% 1,360 Long-term on-the-job training $44,484 $21.39
Merchandise Displayers & Window Trimmers 10,510 12,040 1,530 15% 480 Moderate-term on-the-job training $25,984 $12.49
Sociologists 100 130 30 30% 5 Master's degree $53,709 $25.82
Public Address System & Other Announcers 980 1,130 150 15% 45 Moderate-term on-the-job training $31,029 $14.92
Healthcare Practitioners & Technical Wkrs, All Other 2,270 2,950 680 30% 145 Bachelor's degree $37,010 $17.79
Audio & Video Equipment Technicians 3,400 4,010 610 18% 165 Postsecondary vocational training $38,162 $18.35
Optometrists 2,180 2,830 650 30% 140 First professional degree $118,301 $56.88
Cartographers & Photogrammetrists 740 960 220 30% 45 Bachelor's degree $102,301 $49.18
Water & Liquid Waste Treatment Plant & System Operators 10,310 13,360 3,050 30% 525 Long-term on-the-job training $33,002 $15.87
Education Administrators, Elementary & Secondary School 21,690 28,060 6,370 29% 1,285 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $74,538 -
Surgeons 4,550 5,870 1,320 29% 210 First professional degree $198,281 $95.33
Radio Operators 40 40 0 0% 0 Moderate-term on-the-job training $59,257 $28.49
Sound Engineering Technicians 590 680 90 15% 30 Postsecondary vocational training $39,879 $19.17
Detectives & Criminal Investigators 14,890 19,170 4,280 29% 735 Work experience in a related occupation $58,717 $28.23
Social Scientists & Related Wkrs, All Other 2,200 2,830 630 29% 175 Master's degree $63,525 $30.54
Nuclear Technicians 70 90 20 29% 5 Associate degree $64,382 $30.95
Internists, General 2,280 2,930 650 29% 105 First professional degree $178,933 $86.03
Probation Officers & Correctional Treatment Specialists 5,690 7,310 1,620 28% 280 Bachelor's degree $38,906 $18.70
Public Relations Specialists 22,820 29,310 6,490 28% 1,190 Bachelor's degree $57,318 $27.56
Anesthesiologists 4,090 5,250 1,160 28% 185 First professional degree $196,691 $94.56
Educational, Vocational, & School Counselors 24,650 31,580 6,930 28% 1,195 Master's degree $54,334 $26.12
Survey Researchers 1,140 1,460 320 28% 60 Bachelor's degree $46,421 $22.32
Family & General Practitioners 5,920 7,580 1,660 28% 270 First professional degree $181,003 $87.02
Media & Communication Equipment Wkrs, All Other 460 520 60 13% 15 Moderate-term on-the-job training $65,791 $31.63
Emergency Medical Technicians & Paramedics 13,430 16,870 3,440 26% 620 Postsecondary vocational training $30,651 $14.74
Pediatricians, General 3,360 4,300 940 28% 155 First professional degree $153,470 $73.78
Obstetricians & Gynecologists 2,360 3,020 660 28% 105 First professional degree $205,813 $98.95
Curators 540 690 150 28% 30 Master's degree $51,833 $24.92
Education Administrators, All Other 830 1,060 230 28% 50 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $73,337 $35.26
Counselors, All Other 6,470 8,260 1,790 28% 310 Master's degree $57,332 $27.56
Forensic Science Technicians 1,270 1,620 350 28% 90 Bachelor's degree $46,492 $22.35
Dietetic Technicians 1,170 1,450 280 24% 60 Postsecondary vocational training $24,469 $11.76
Power Plant Operators 1,960 2,500 540 28% 125 Long-term on-the-job training $58,688 $28.22
Mining & Geological Engineers, Inc. Mining Safety Engineers 800 1,020 220 28% 40 Bachelor's degree $96,133 $46.22
Audio-Visual Collections Specialists 910 1,160 250 27% 45 Bachelor's degree $46,748 $22.47
Computer Software Engineers, Applications 34,460 43,870 9,410 27% 1,230 Bachelor's degree $91,522 $44.00
Paralegals & Legal Assistants 17,440 22,170 4,730 27% 675 Associate degree $49,593 $23.84
Teachers & Instructors, All Other 60,110 76,380 16,270 27% 2,550 Bachelor's degree $25,936 -
Pharmacy Technicians 27,650 37,110 9,460 34% 1,640 Moderate-term on-the-job training $29,097 $13.99
Cooks, Restaurant 76,350 96,950 20,600 27% 4,015 Long-term on-the-job training $19,404 $9.33
Psychiatric Technicians 8,630 9,890 1,260 15% 345 Postsecondary vocational training $18,690 $8.99
Political Scientists 260 330 70 27% 20 Master's degree $58,909 $28.32
Human Resources, Training, & Labor Relations Specialists, All Other 10,190 12,930 2,740 27% 540 Bachelor's degree $60,645 $29.16
Respiratory Therapy Technicians 1,680 1,850 170 10% 55 Postsecondary vocational training $43,163 $20.75
Substance Abuse & Behavioral Disorder Counselors 3,020 3,830 810 27% 140 Bachelor's degree $35,098 $16.87
Compensation, Benefits, & Job Analysis Specialists 10,340 13,110 2,770 27% 545 Bachelor's degree $59,275 $28.50
Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary 640 810 170 27% 25 Doctoral degree $61,582 -
Diagnostic Medical Sonographers 3,210 4,060 850 26% 130 Associate degree $60,992 $29.32
Nuclear Medicine Technologists 1,400 1,770 370 26% 55 Associate degree $64,484 $31.00
Radiologic Technologists & Technicians 14,540 18,370 3,830 26% 595 Associate degree $52,506 $25.24
Surgical Technologists 7,690 10,350 2,660 35% 460 Postsecondary vocational training $39,666 $19.07
Area, Ethnic, & Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary 230 290 60 26% 10 Doctoral degree $58,034 -
Licensed Practical & Licensed Vocational Nurses 65,640 82,730 17,090 26% 3,765 Postsecondary vocational training $40,708 $19.57
Medical Records & Health Information Technicians 13,120 16,520 3,400 26% 610 Associate degree $32,147 $15.46
Health Technologists & Technicians, All Other 5,480 6,990 1,510 28% 260 Postsecondary vocational training $37,052 $17.81
Medical & Public Health Social Wkrs 7,610 9,580 1,970 26% 385 Bachelor's degree $47,518 $22.85
Training & Development Specialists 17,190 21,620 4,430 26% 895 Bachelor's degree $52,561 $25.27
Home Health Aides 92,660 143,720 51,060 55% 6,030 Short-term on-the-job training $18,849 $9.06
Orthodontists 350 440 90 26% 20 First professional degree $181,707 $87.36
Health Educators 3,430 4,310 880 26% 165 Bachelor's degree $45,476 $21.86
Nursing Aides, Orderlies, & Attendants 99,320 126,160 26,840 27% 3,675 Postsecondary vocational training $21,609 $10.39
Psychiatric Aides 5,880 6,830 950 16% 155 Short-term on-the-job training $19,700 $9.47
Accountants & Auditors 95,910 120,340 24,430 25% 4,065 Bachelor's degree $65,785 $31.63
Home Economics Teachers, Postsecondary 550 690 140 25% 25 Doctoral degree $72,133 -
Cost Estimators 16,050 20,130 4,080 25% 765 Bachelor's degree $60,548 $29.11
Actuaries 790 990 200 25% 45 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $104,685 $50.33
Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary 1,390 1,740 350 25% 60 Doctoral degree $77,575 -
Market Research Analysts 16,410 20,530 4,120 25% 850 Bachelor's degree $70,936 $34.10
Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary 3,550 4,440 890 25% 150 Doctoral degree $91,660 -
Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary 9,080 11,350 2,270 25% 385 Doctoral degree $115,174 -
Urban & Regional Planners 1,640 2,050 410 25% 70 Master's degree $57,012 $27.41
Occupational Therapist Aides 1,450 1,740 290 20% 50 Short-term on-the-job training $19,868 $9.55
Law Teachers, Postsecondary 1,000 1,250 250 25% 40 Doctoral degree $112,934 -
Power Distributors & Dispatchers 720 900 180 25% 45 Long-term on-the-job training $56,370 $27.10
Recreational Therapists 720 900 180 25% 40 Bachelor's degree $35,183 $16.91
Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary 320 400 80 25% 15 Doctoral degree $67,501 -
Agricultural Engineers 200 250 50 25% 10 Bachelor's degree $106,669 $51.28
Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary 120 150 30 25% 5 Doctoral degree $88,200 -
Social Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary, All Other 240 300 60 25% 10 Doctoral degree $75,427 -
Physical Therapist Aides 3,180 4,490 1,310 41% 175 Short-term on-the-job training $22,176 $10.66
Massage Therapists 9,800 12,090 2,290 23% 360 Postsecondary vocational training $35,914 $17.27
Dental Assistants 19,250 25,840 6,590 34% 1,020 Moderate-term on-the-job training $31,095 $14.95
Medical & Health Services Managers 20,570 25,670 5,100 25% 900 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $83,943 $40.36
Education Teachers, Postsecondary 4,440 5,540 1,100 25% 185 Doctoral degree $63,670 -
Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary 1,090 1,360 270 25% 45 Doctoral degree $79,790 -
Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary 810 1,010 200 25% 35 Doctoral degree $76,581 -
Geoscientists, Ex. Hydrologists & Geographers 9,680 12,070 2,390 25% 515 Master's degree $127,251 $61.18
Business Teachers, Postsecondary 6,000 7,480 1,480 25% 255 Doctoral degree $97,672 -
Graduate Teaching Assistants 12,200 15,200 3,000 25% 510 Doctoral degree $32,881 -
Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary 1,830 2,280 450 25% 75 Doctoral degree $84,065 -
Physics Teachers, Postsecondary 1,100 1,370 270 25% 45 Doctoral degree $89,620 -
Private Detectives & Investigators 2,730 3,400 670 25% 120 Work experience in a related occupation $47,550 $22.86
Medical Assistants 40,640 54,870 14,230 35% 1,880 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,015 $12.99
Medical Equipment Preparers 2,520 3,100 580 23% 90 Short-term on-the-job training $27,648 $13.29
Employment, Recruitment, & Placement Specialists 17,110 21,300 4,190 24% 865 Bachelor's degree $58,626 $28.19
Medical Transcriptionists 5,470 6,420 950 17% 155 Postsecondary vocational training $32,999 $15.86
Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary 2,580 3,210 630 24% 110 Doctoral degree $69,892 -
Communications Teachers, Postsecondary 2,090 2,600 510 24% 85 Doctoral degree $63,257 -
Pharmacy Aides 2,570 2,400 -170 -7% 30 Short-term on-the-job training $22,150 $10.65
Veterinary Assistants & Laboratory Animal Caretakers 5,000 6,220 1,220 24% 175 Short-term on-the-job training $21,554 $10.36
Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, & Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary 1,070 1,330 260 24% 45 Doctoral degree $87,224 -
Criminal Justice & Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary 660 820 160 24% 25 Doctoral degree $62,555 -
Anthropology & Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary 330 410 80 24% 15 Doctoral degree $78,416 -
Economics Teachers, Postsecondary 950 1,180 230 24% 40 Doctoral degree $91,978 -
Healthcare Support Wkrs, All Other 10,700 13,300 2,600 24% 380 Short-term on-the-job training $30,829 $14.82
Foreign Language & Literature Teachers, Postsecondary 2,280 2,830 550 24% 95 Doctoral degree $61,763 -
History Teachers, Postsecondary 2,240 2,780 540 24% 95 Doctoral degree $69,725 -
Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary 1,910 2,370 460 24% 80 Doctoral degree $78,323 -
Stationary Engineers & Boiler Operators 2,120 2,630 510 24% 85 Long-term on-the-job training $43,270 $20.80
Librarians 11,350 14,080 2,730 24% 575 Master's degree $54,199 $26.06
Physicians & Surgeons, All Other 15,240 18,900 3,660 24% 635 First professional degree $168,006 $80.77
Geography Teachers, Postsecondary 250 310 60 24% 10 Doctoral degree $74,977 -
Bailiffs 610 730 120 20% 25 Moderate-term on-the-job training $40,653 $19.54
Psychiatrists 1,880 2,330 450 24% 80 First professional degree $150,753 $72.48
Correctional Officers & Jailers 47,000 54,540 7,540 16% 1,795 Moderate-term on-the-job training $33,248 $15.98
Art, Drama, & Music Teachers, Postsecondary 5,730 7,100 1,370 24% 235 Doctoral degree $64,699 -
Parking Enforcement Wkrs 270 290 20 7% 10 Short-term on-the-job training $25,658 $12.34
Recreation & Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary 1,340 1,660 320 24% 55 Doctoral degree $54,672 -
Mental Health Counselors 4,530 5,610 1,080 24% 200 Master's degree $38,612 $18.56
Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary 11,670 14,450 2,780 24% 485 Doctoral degree $100,886 -
Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary 4,030 4,990 960 24% 165 Doctoral degree $70,599 -
Statisticians 1,050 1,300 250 24% 55 Master's degree $63,616 $30.58
Astronomers 210 260 50 24% 10 Doctoral degree $87,874 $42.25
English Language & Literature Teachers, Postsecondary 5,210 6,450 1,240 24% 215 Doctoral degree $63,588 -
Civil Engineers 28,100 34,780 6,680 24% 1,145 Bachelor's degree $87,952 $42.28
Environmental Scientists & Specialists, Inc. Health 7,530 9,320 1,790 24% 395 Master's degree $73,492 $35.33
Animal Scientists 380 470 90 24% 25 Doctoral degree $57,545 $27.67
Life Scientists, All Other 380 470 90 24% 20 Bachelor's degree $57,877 $27.83
Philosophy & Religion Teachers, Postsecondary 1,400 1,730 330 24% 60 Doctoral degree $67,708 -
Animal Control Wkrs 1,400 1,670 270 19% 65 Moderate-term on-the-job training $29,518 $14.19
Security Guards 76,480 93,780 17,300 23% 3,305 Short-term on-the-job training $25,198 $12.11
Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary 2,170 2,680 510 24% 90 Doctoral degree $74,985 -
Vocational Education Teachers, Middle School 1,320 1,630 310 23% 60 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $50,821 -
Crossing Guards 3,590 4,470 880 25% 185 Short-term on-the-job training $23,156 $11.13
Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, & Other Recreational Protective Service Wkrs 8,950 10,740 1,790 20% 785 Short-term on-the-job training $17,559 $8.44
Chiropractors 2,280 2,810 530 23% 95 First professional degree $74,590 $35.86
Pharmacists 20,090 24,760 4,670 23% 910 First professional degree $110,260 $53.01
Medical & Clinical Laboratory Technicians 12,300 15,150 2,850 23% 520 Associate degree $34,365 $16.52
Financial Analysts 20,150 24,810 4,660 23% 830 Bachelor's degree $79,865 $38.40
Anthropologists & Archeologists 390 480 90 23% 30 Master's degree $48,254 $23.20
Nuclear Engineers 260 320 60 23% 10 Bachelor's degree $109,838 $52.81
Nursing Instructors & Teachers, Postsecondary 4,470 5,500 1,030 23% 185 Doctoral degree $63,929 -
Protective Service Wkrs, All Other 3,490 4,360 870 25% 320 Short-term on-the-job training $27,145 $13.05
Biological Scientists, All Other 1,650 2,030 380 23% 95 Doctoral degree $63,825 $30.68
Cooks, Fast Food 36,370 45,160 8,790 24% 1,810 Short-term on-the-job training $17,166 $8.25
Mental Health & Substance Abuse Social Wkrs 4,450 5,470 1,020 23% 210 Master's degree $34,615 $16.64
Construction Managers 73,920 90,790 16,870 23% 2,260 Bachelor's degree $77,494 $37.26
Cooks, Institution & Cafeteria 32,640 39,140 6,500 20% 1,485 Moderate-term on-the-job training $20,741 $9.97
Community & Social Service Specialists, All Other 2,910 3,570 660 23% 125 Bachelor's degree $35,095 $16.87
Cooks, Short Order 11,440 13,060 1,620 14% 455 Short-term on-the-job training $18,557 $8.92
Adult Literacy, Remedial Education, & GED Teachers & Instructors 5,620 6,890 1,270 23% 210 Bachelor's degree $44,876 $21.58
Cooks, All Other 700 880 180 26% 40 Moderate-term on-the-job training $17,686 $8.50
Biological Technicians 3,810 4,670 860 23% 220 Bachelor's degree $35,904 $17.26
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Food Preparation & Serving Wkrs 74,440 91,210 16,770 23% 2,385 Work experience in a related occupation $29,419 $14.14
Food Preparation Wkrs 35,390 41,510 6,120 17% 1,875 Short-term on-the-job training $17,970 $8.64
Flight Attendants 14,120 17,290 3,170 22% 630 Long-term on-the-job training $46,906 -
Bartenders 28,500 35,490 6,990 25% 1,715 Short-term on-the-job training $20,095 $9.66
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Landscaping, Lawn Service, & Groundskeeping Wkrs 16,710 20,450 3,740 22% 555 Work experience in a related occupation $36,928 $17.75
Combined Food Preparation & Serving Wkrs, Inc. Fast Food 247,750 326,190 78,440 32% 13,100 Short-term on-the-job training $17,020 $8.18
Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, & Coffee Shop 27,600 33,520 5,920 21% 2,615 Short-term on-the-job training $16,744 $8.05
Mathematicians 90 110 20 22% 5 Doctoral degree $73,679 $35.42
Waiters & Waitresses 192,340 237,660 45,320 24% 15,145 Short-term on-the-job training $17,889 $8.60
Writers & Authors 8,130 9,930 1,800 22% 350 Bachelor's degree $55,959 $26.90
Geological & Petroleum Technicians 6,070 7,410 1,340 22% 350 Associate degree $60,685 $29.18
Food Scientists & Technologists 590 720 130 22% 35 Bachelor's degree $65,816 $31.64
Tax Examiners, Collectors, & Revenue Agents 4,460 5,440 980 22% 260 Bachelor's degree $51,974 $24.99
Postsecondary Teachers, All Other 8,660 10,560 1,900 22% 340 Doctoral degree $69,475 -
Construction & Building Inspectors 6,410 7,810 1,400 22% 270 Work experience in a related occupation $49,539 $23.82
Food Servers, Nonrestaurant 7,860 9,340 1,480 19% 285 Short-term on-the-job training $19,702 $9.47
Dining Room & Cafeteria Attendants & Bartender Helpers 34,200 41,310 7,110 21% 2,195 Short-term on-the-job training $16,939 $8.14
Network & Computer Systems Administrators 29,350 35,740 6,390 22% 1,130 Bachelor's degree $67,635 $32.52
Health Diagnosing & Treating Practitioners, All Other 1,150 1,400 250 22% 45 Bachelor's degree $84,947 $40.84
Atmospheric & Space Scientists 830 1,010 180 22% 35 Bachelor's degree $81,642 $39.25
Logisticians 12,560 15,270 2,710 22% 550 Bachelor's degree $64,699 $31.11
Transportation Inspectors 2,690 3,270 580 22% 120 Work experience in a related occupation $57,766 $27.77
Dishwashers 33,450 43,570 10,120 30% 2,385 Short-term on-the-job training $16,423 $7.90
Hosts & Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, & Coffee Shop 25,580 32,450 6,870 27% 2,465 Short-term on-the-job training $17,259 $8.30
Clinical, Counseling, & School Psychologists 7,980 9,690 1,710 21% 395 Doctoral degree $59,593 $28.65
Purchasing Agents, Ex. Wholesale, Retail, & Farm Products 24,140 29,300 5,160 21% 1,150 Long-term on-the-job training $57,431 $27.61
Food Preparation & Serving Related Wkrs, All Other 4,830 4,970 140 3% 260 Short-term on-the-job training $22,010 $10.58
Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software 36,000 43,640 7,640 21% 1,070 Bachelor's degree $94,730 $45.54
Airline Pilots, Copilots, & Flight Engineers 8,730 10,570 1,840 21% 480 Bachelor's degree $121,254 -
Janitors & Cleaners, Ex. Maids & Housekeeping Cleaners 161,170 180,620 19,450 12% 4,990 Short-term on-the-job training $20,370 $9.79
Maids & Housekeeping Cleaners 85,100 94,570 9,470 11% 2,470 Short-term on-the-job training $17,669 $8.49
Education Administrators, Preschool & Child Care Center/Program 3,730 4,510 780 21% 190 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $36,812 $17.70
Building Cleaning Wkrs, All Other 490 570 80 16% 20 Short-term on-the-job training $29,749 $14.30
Pest Control Wkrs 4,820 5,780 960 20% 265 Moderate-term on-the-job training $35,018 $16.84
Soil & Plant Scientists 770 930 160 21% 40 Bachelor's degree $54,033 $25.98
Landscaping & Groundskeeping Wkrs 79,240 98,640 19,400 24% 2,895 Short-term on-the-job training $21,973 $10.56
Industrial-Organizational Psychologists 530 640 110 21% 25 Master's degree $68,225 $32.80
Agents & Business Managers of Artists, Performers, & Athletes 580 700 120 21% 25 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $71,631 $34.44
Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, & Applicators, Vegetation 2,390 3,060 670 28% 95 Moderate-term on-the-job training $32,701 $15.72
Tree Trimmers & Pruners 2,150 2,810 660 31% 90 Short-term on-the-job training $31,998 $15.38
Fire Inspectors & Investigators 830 1,000 170 20% 40 Work experience in a related occupation $51,747 $24.88
Environmental Engineers 2,540 3,060 520 20% 110 Bachelor's degree $84,201 $40.48
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Personal Service Wkrs 12,930 15,570 2,640 20% 615 Work experience in a related occupation $34,951 $16.80
Grounds Maintenance Wkrs, All Other 710 840 130 18% 20 Short-term on-the-job training $32,268 $15.51
Budget Analysts 4,280 5,140 860 20% 165 Bachelor's degree $66,112 $31.78
First-Line Supervisors/Managers, Protective Service Wkrs, All Other 2,940 3,530 590 20% 165 Work experience in a related occupation $46,147 $22.19
Slot Key Persons 60 60 0 0% 0 Postsecondary vocational training $40,076 $19.27
Rehabilitation Counselors 3,950 4,740 790 20% 160 Master's degree $37,857 $18.20
Social Wkrs, All Other 3,400 4,080 680 20% 150 Bachelor's degree $45,488 $21.87
Animal Trainers 2,140 2,740 600 28% 105 Moderate-term on-the-job training $33,694 $16.20
Nonfarm Animal Caretakers 13,670 16,950 3,280 24% 630 Short-term on-the-job training $20,215 $9.72
Gaming Dealers 590 670 80 14% 35 Postsecondary vocational training $28,339 $13.62
Gaming & Sports Book Writers & Runners 2,420 2,810 390 16% 140 Short-term on-the-job training $22,999 $11.06
Environmental Engineering Technicians 1,660 1,990 330 20% 65 Associate degree $47,574 $22.87
Gaming Service Wkrs, All Other 290 340 50 17% 15 Moderate-term on-the-job training $23,655 $11.37
Motion Picture Projectionists 920 990 70 8% 45 Short-term on-the-job training $20,867 $10.03
Tile & Marble Setters 4,350 5,210 860 20% 200 Long-term on-the-job training $29,723 $14.29
Ushers, Lobby Attendants, & Ticket Takers 7,590 9,160 1,570 21% 635 Short-term on-the-job training $16,729 $8.04
Computer & Information Scientists, Research 1,520 1,820 300 20% 65 Doctoral degree $114,873 $55.23
Meeting & Convention Planners 5,540 6,630 1,090 20% 235 Bachelor's degree $46,367 $22.29
Computer Systems Analysts 46,560 55,720 9,160 20% 1,920 Bachelor's degree $80,677 $38.79
Amusement & Recreation Attendants 15,380 18,480 3,100 20% 1,105 Short-term on-the-job training $18,510 $8.90
Costume Attendants 200 250 50 25% 15 Short-term on-the-job training $27,266 $13.11
Captains, Mates, & Pilots of Water Vessels 3,110 3,720 610 20% 190 Work experience in a related occupation $84,251 $40.51
Electrical Power-Line Installers & Repairers 9,440 11,290 1,850 20% 520 Long-term on-the-job training $43,703 $21.01
Medical & Clinical Laboratory Technologists 12,070 14,430 2,360 20% 465 Bachelor's degree $51,448 $24.73
Locker Room, Coatroom, & Dressing Room Attendants 1,470 1,740 270 18% 100 Short-term on-the-job training $19,588 $9.42
Entertainment Attendants & Related Wkrs, All Other 4,250 4,950 700 16% 290 Moderate-term on-the-job training $21,934 $10.55
Airfield Operations Specialists 360 430 70 19% 15 Long-term on-the-job training $51,820 $24.91
Therapists, All Other 2,110 2,520 410 19% 85 Bachelor's degree $52,421 $25.20
Industrial Machinery Mechanics 31,780 37,940 6,160 19% 1,075 Long-term on-the-job training $44,608 $21.45
Art Directors 4,750 5,670 920 19% 195 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $83,898 $40.34
Social Science Research Assistants 620 740 120 19% 35 Associate degree $39,236 $18.86
Embalmers 750 840 90 12% 45 Postsecondary vocational training $37,566 $18.06
Sales Managers 22,180 26,450 4,270 19% 905 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $113,657 $54.64
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Fire Fighting & Prevention Wkrs 4,000 4,770 770 19% 280 Work experience in a related occupation $66,290 $31.87
Funeral Attendants 2,140 2,870 730 34% 175 Short-term on-the-job training $19,491 $9.37
Set & Exhibit Designers 520 620 100 19% 25 Bachelor's degree $42,490 $20.43
Epidemiologists 260 310 50 19% 10 Master's degree $53,906 $25.92
Barbers 5,660 6,670 1,010 18% 185 Postsecondary vocational training $32,786 $15.76
Database Administrators 9,690 11,550 1,860 19% 345 Bachelor's degree $71,170 $34.22
Hairdressers, Hairstylists, & Cosmetologists 40,870 49,000 8,130 20% 1,415 Postsecondary vocational training $25,654 $12.33
Operations Research Analysts 6,470 7,710 1,240 19% 315 Master's degree $73,353 $35.27
Police & Sheriff's Patrol Officers 51,070 60,850 9,780 19% 2,295 Long-term on-the-job training $49,622 $23.86
Materials Engineers 2,350 2,800 450 19% 100 Bachelor's degree $91,880 $44.17
Physicists 680 810 130 19% 35 Doctoral degree $84,908 $40.82
Farm & Home Management Advisors 420 500 80 19% 20 Bachelor's degree $22,763 $10.94
Makeup Artists, Theatrical & Performance 170 200 30 18% 5 Postsecondary vocational training $28,123 $13.52
Manicurists & Pedicurists 2,920 3,430 510 17% 95 Postsecondary vocational training $20,318 $9.77
Shampooers 1,150 1,300 150 13% 30 Short-term on-the-job training $18,177 $8.74
Skin Care Specialists 3,080 4,260 1,180 38% 165 Postsecondary vocational training $29,586 $14.22
Baggage Porters & Bellhops 1,600 1,860 260 16% 65 Short-term on-the-job training $18,998 $9.13
Music Directors & Composers 4,990 5,930 940 19% 195 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $53,525 $25.73
Concierges 1,470 1,800 330 22% 75 Moderate-term on-the-job training $24,793 $11.92
Multi-Media Artists & Animators 4,860 5,770 910 19% 200 Bachelor's degree $55,402 $26.64
Gas Plant Operators 2,620 3,110 490 19% 110 Long-term on-the-job training $53,399 $25.67
Funeral Directors 2,040 2,420 380 19% 80 Associate degree $53,034 $25.50
Clergy 43,480 51,560 8,080 19% 1,670 Master's degree $41,662 $20.03
Religious Wkrs, All Other 3,500 4,150 650 19% 120 Bachelor's degree $31,295 $15.05
Law Clerks 2,100 2,490 390 19% 70 Bachelor's degree $37,328 $17.95
Ship Engineers 700 830 130 19% 45 Work experience in a related occupation $65,488 $31.48
Administrative Services Managers 25,770 30,550 4,780 19% 1,015 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $86,542 $41.61
Boilermakers 4,370 5,180 810 19% 170 Long-term on-the-job training $55,628 $26.74
Directors, Religious Activities & Education 10,630 12,600 1,970 19% 410 Bachelor's degree $60,636 $29.15
Agricultural Inspectors 1,080 1,280 200 19% 40 Work experience in a related occupation $39,712 $19.09
Psychologists, All Other 810 960 150 19% 40 Master's degree $79,337 $38.14
Tour Guides & Escorts 1,900 2,240 340 18% 115 Moderate-term on-the-job training $21,499 $10.34
Food Service Managers 25,700 30,440 4,740 18% 975 Work experience in a related occupation $53,812 $25.87
Landscape Architects 1,140 1,350 210 18% 40 Bachelor's degree $61,216 $29.43
Claims Adjusters, Examiners, & Investigators 17,870 21,160 3,290 18% 785 Long-term on-the-job training $57,817 $27.80
Travel Guides 60 70 10 17% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $36,439 $17.52
Transportation Attendants, Ex. Flight Attendants & Baggage Porters 1,330 1,550 220 17% 50 Short-term on-the-job training $24,734 $11.89
Child Care Wkrs 138,500 165,860 27,360 20% 6,790 Short-term on-the-job training $18,205 $8.75
Personal & Home Care Aides 94,530 138,530 44,000 47% 5,580 Short-term on-the-job training $16,211 $7.79
Social & Community Service Managers 7,170 8,470 1,300 18% 295 Bachelor's degree $53,304 $25.63
Fitness Trainers & Aerobics Instructors 14,480 19,210 4,730 33% 735 Postsecondary vocational training $35,043 $16.85
Child, Family, & School Social Wkrs 17,090 20,150 3,060 18% 735 Bachelor's degree $37,227 $17.90
Recreation Wkrs 13,980 17,170 3,190 23% 570 Short-term on-the-job training $22,197 $10.67
Air Traffic Controllers 2,460 2,900 440 18% 130 Long-term on-the-job training $114,573 $55.08
Residential Advisors 4,440 5,160 720 16% 225 Short-term on-the-job training $22,160 $10.65
Photographers 11,390 13,420 2,030 18% 435 Long-term on-the-job training $33,395 $16.06
Education, Training, & Library Wkrs, All Other 900 1,060 160 18% 35 Bachelor's degree $43,526 $20.93
Dentists, All Other Specialists 450 530 80 18% 20 First professional degree $145,739 $70.07
Personal Care & Service Wkrs, All Other 2,900 3,470 570 20% 120 Short-term on-the-job training $20,136 $9.68
Designers, All Other 170 200 30 18% 10 Bachelor's degree $38,655 $18.58
Cashiers 276,070 312,940 36,870 13% 16,090 Short-term on-the-job training $17,540 $8.43
Gaming Change Persons & Booth Cashiers 430 400 -30 -7% 20 Short-term on-the-job training $26,010 $12.50
Counter & Rental Clerks 31,180 32,560 1,380 4% 975 Short-term on-the-job training $25,494 $12.26
Parts Salespersons 16,490 17,740 1,250 8% 710 Moderate-term on-the-job training $29,211 $14.04
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Construction Trades & Extraction Wkrs 77,740 91,260 13,520 17% 2,855 Work experience in a related occupation $55,877 $26.86
Retail Salespersons 361,780 416,090 54,310 15% 15,520 Short-term on-the-job training $23,189 $11.15
Advertising Sales Agents 8,560 9,230 670 8% 235 Moderate-term on-the-job training $49,444 $23.77
Insurance Sales Agents 46,790 54,990 8,200 18% 1,905 Postsecondary vocational training $59,062 $28.40
Public Relations Managers 2,550 2,990 440 17% 105 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $104,536 $50.26
Travel Agents 7,290 7,560 270 4% 80 Postsecondary vocational training $32,058 $15.41
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Police & Detectives 5,920 6,940 1,020 17% 360 Work experience in a related occupation $73,471 $35.32
Computer & Information Systems Managers 18,890 22,140 3,250 17% 630 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $120,325 $57.85
Athletes & Sports Competitors 700 820 120 17% 25 Long-term on-the-job training $103,211 -
Terrazzo Wkrs & Finishers 350 410 60 17% 15 Long-term on-the-job training $29,677 $14.27
Demonstrators & Product Promoters 9,850 10,450 600 6% 345 Moderate-term on-the-job training $25,746 $12.38
Vocational Education Teachers, Postsecondary 11,730 13,740 2,010 17% 405 Doctoral degree $50,786 $24.42
Credit Analysts 6,020 7,050 1,030 17% 215 Bachelor's degree $66,365 $31.91
Models 40 50 10 25% 0 Moderate-term on-the-job training $26,641 $12.81
Life, Physical, & Social Science Technicians, All Other 6,560 7,680 1,120 17% 390 Associate degree $41,922 $20.15
Arbitrators, Mediators, & Conciliators 410 480 70 17% 15 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $52,494 $25.24
Real Estate Sales Agents 38,000 45,550 7,550 20% 1,375 Postsecondary vocational training $51,409 $24.72
Media & Communication Wkrs, All Other 470 550 80 17% 20 Long-term on-the-job training $51,773 $24.89
Materials Scientists 650 760 110 17% 30 Bachelor's degree $81,509 $39.19
Aerospace Engineers 10,510 12,270 1,760 17% 395 Bachelor's degree $96,807 $46.54
Environmental Science & Protection Technicians, Inc. Health 3,350 3,910 560 17% 200 Associate degree $43,080 $20.71
Dentists, General 6,760 7,890 1,130 17% 305 First professional degree $153,632 $73.86
Film & Video Editors 840 980 140 17% 35 Bachelor's degree $62,134 $29.87
Geographers 60 70 10 17% 5 Master's degree $60,313 $29.00
Telemarketers 21,890 19,460 -2,430 -11% 550 Short-term on-the-job training $24,701 $11.88
Management Analysts 51,770 60,370 8,600 17% 1,750 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $78,867 $37.92
Door-To-Door Sales Wkrs, News & Street Vendors, & Related Wkrs 6,320 5,850 -470 -7% 115 Short-term on-the-job training $35,330 $16.99
Sales & Related Wkrs, All Other 6,960 7,700 740 11% 230 Moderate-term on-the-job training $36,485 $17.54
Switchboard Operators, Inc. Answering Service 11,710 10,910 -800 -7% 240 Short-term on-the-job training $24,187 $11.63
Fine Artists, Inc. Painters, Sculptors, & Illustrators 790 920 130 16% 30 Long-term on-the-job training $47,824 $22.99
Telephone Operators 1,540 1,610 70 5% 35 Short-term on-the-job training $29,163 $14.02
Industrial Engineers 16,210 18,870 2,660 16% 680 Bachelor's degree $83,638 $40.21
Carpenters 52,260 60,830 8,570 16% 1,505 Long-term on-the-job training $32,308 $15.53
Loan Counselors 6,050 7,040 990 16% 165 Bachelor's degree $37,265 $17.92
Dietitians & Nutritionists 3,430 3,990 560 16% 170 Bachelor's degree $52,384 $25.18
Communications Equipment Operators, All Other 80 80 0 0% 0 Short-term on-the-job training $39,176 $18.83
Financial Specialists, All Other 7,130 8,290 1,160 16% 245 Bachelor's degree $60,590 $29.13
Business Operations Specialists, All Other 60,240 70,030 9,790 16% 2,320 Bachelor's degree $68,149 $32.76
Executive Secretaries & Administrative Assistants 120,360 139,920 19,560 16% 3,575 Work experience in a related occupation $41,963 $20.17
Bill & Account Collectors 33,450 39,870 6,420 19% 1,270 Short-term on-the-job training $30,237 $14.54
Billing & Posting Clerks & Machine Operators 41,020 48,810 7,790 19% 1,455 Short-term on-the-job training $31,288 $15.04
Marriage & Family Therapists 740 860 120 16% 30 Master's degree $46,772 $22.49
Bookkeeping, Accounting, & Auditing Clerks 143,380 163,940 20,560 14% 3,780 Moderate-term on-the-job training $33,609 $16.16
Payroll & Timekeeping Clerks 14,990 14,430 -560 -4% 355 Moderate-term on-the-job training $34,708 $16.69
Procurement Clerks 5,740 6,480 740 13% 250 Moderate-term on-the-job training $35,243 $16.94
Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, & Hearing Officers 560 650 90 16% 20 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $83,169 $39.99
Civil Engineering Technicians 13,770 15,980 2,210 16% 480 Associate degree $40,558 $19.50
Tellers 43,840 49,680 5,840 13% 2,390 Short-term on-the-job training $23,638 $11.36
Legal Secretaries 14,730 17,090 2,360 16% 435 Associate degree $42,628 $20.49
Brokerage Clerks 2,920 2,940 20 1% 85 Moderate-term on-the-job training $42,307 $20.34
Butchers & Meat Cutters 9,130 10,580 1,450 16% 435 Long-term on-the-job training $25,489 $12.25
Correspondence Clerks 1,020 930 -90 -9% 30 Short-term on-the-job training $30,986 $14.90
Securities, Commodities, & Financial Services Sales Agents 28,320 32,790 4,470 16% 1,315 Bachelor's degree $73,133 $35.16
Interior Designers 6,000 6,940 940 16% 280 Associate degree $48,478 $23.31
Court, Municipal, & License Clerks 8,220 9,780 1,560 19% 390 Short-term on-the-job training $29,510 $14.19
Microbiologists 640 740 100 16% 30 Doctoral degree $57,592 $27.69
Sales Representatives, Services, All Other 44,890 51,880 6,990 16% 1,815 Work experience in a related occupation $59,423 $28.57
Architects, Ex. Landscape & Naval 11,010 12,720 1,710 16% 355 Bachelor's degree $78,409 $37.70
Credit Authorizers, Checkers, & Clerks 7,690 8,050 360 5% 255 Short-term on-the-job training $32,396 $15.57
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Office & Administrative Support Wkrs 127,980 147,820 19,840 16% 4,870 Work experience in a related occupation $50,039 $24.06
Upholsterers 2,780 3,210 430 15% 60 Long-term on-the-job training $27,652 $13.29
Customer Service Representatives 217,250 267,290 50,040 23% 11,845 Moderate-term on-the-job training $29,566 $14.21
Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs 4,340 5,030 690 16% 170 Moderate-term on-the-job training $38,688 $18.60
File Clerks 15,570 12,130 -3,440 -22% 380 Short-term on-the-job training $26,165 $12.58
Hotel, Motel, & Resort Desk Clerks 17,240 21,760 4,520 26% 1,035 Short-term on-the-job training $18,244 $8.77
Interviewers, Ex. Eligibility & Loan 17,080 21,070 3,990 23% 805 Short-term on-the-job training $28,364 $13.64
Library Assistants, Clerical 6,450 7,880 1,430 22% 415 Short-term on-the-job training $23,465 $11.28
Loan Interviewers & Clerks 16,300 17,960 1,660 10% 565 Short-term on-the-job training $36,515 $17.56
Order Clerks 12,480 9,720 -2,760 -22% 355 Short-term on-the-job training $29,330 $14.10
Human Resources Assistants, Ex. Payroll & Timekeeping 10,910 10,710 -200 -2% 310 Short-term on-the-job training $35,040 $16.85
Technical Writers 3,420 3,940 520 15% 105 Bachelor's degree $59,864 $28.78
Musicians & Singers 13,320 15,340 2,020 15% 475 Long-term on-the-job training - $18.51
Receptionists & Information Clerks 73,250 84,880 11,630 16% 3,140 Short-term on-the-job training $24,719 $11.88
Transit & Railroad Police 730 840 110 15% 25 Long-term on-the-job training $50,281 $24.17
Training & Development Managers 1,860 2,140 280 15% 65 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $91,037 $43.77
Reservation & Transportation Ticket Agents & Travel Clerks 12,490 14,850 2,360 19% 515 Short-term on-the-job training $35,248 $16.95
Information & Record Clerks, All Other 21,410 20,220 -1,190 -6% 605 Short-term on-the-job training $35,155 $16.90
Gaming Supervisors 200 230 30 15% 10 Work experience in a related occupation $36,253 $17.43
Human Resources Managers, All Other 2,670 3,070 400 15% 95 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $113,031 $54.34
Cargo & Freight Agents 9,630 12,720 3,090 32% 530 Moderate-term on-the-job training $36,248 $17.43
Lawyers 44,680 51,360 6,680 15% 1,505 First professional degree $130,854 $62.91
Brickmasons & Blockmasons 8,810 10,110 1,300 15% 355 Long-term on-the-job training $38,649 $18.58
Computer Support Specialists 45,710 52,450 6,740 15% 1,940 Associate degree $47,334 $22.76
Couriers & Messengers 6,890 7,440 550 8% 215 Short-term on-the-job training $24,992 $12.02
Police, Fire, & Ambulance Dispatchers 7,120 9,280 2,160 30% 360 Moderate-term on-the-job training $31,653 $15.22
Craft Artists 960 1,100 140 15% 35 Long-term on-the-job training $37,682 $18.12
Dispatchers, Ex. Police, Fire, & Ambulance 19,020 19,300 280 1% 420 Moderate-term on-the-job training $37,227 $17.90
Conservation Scientists 620 710 90 15% 15 Bachelor's degree $59,403 $28.56
Umpires, Referees, & Other Sports Officials 690 790 100 14% 25 Long-term on-the-job training $26,697 -
Meter Readers, Utilities 2,740 2,530 -210 -8% 75 Short-term on-the-job training $28,506 $13.70
Plumbers, Pipefitters, & Steamfitters 34,990 40,050 5,060 14% 1,210 Long-term on-the-job training $42,581 $20.47
Lodging Managers 3,750 4,290 540 14% 135 Work experience in a related occupation $56,567 $27.20
Postal Service Clerks 4,350 3,970 -380 -9% 95 Short-term on-the-job training $52,221 $25.11
Postal Service Mail Carriers 23,410 25,840 2,430 10% 975 Short-term on-the-job training $49,045 $23.58
Agricultural & Food Science Technicians 2,590 2,960 370 14% 125 Associate degree $31,687 $15.23
Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, & Processing Machine Operators 11,080 8,630 -2,450 -22% 100 Short-term on-the-job training $48,838 $23.48
Production, Planning, & Expediting Clerks 27,870 30,190 2,320 8% 915 Moderate-term on-the-job training $40,455 $19.45
Shipping, Receiving, & Traffic Clerks 58,750 58,170 -580 -1% 1,455 Short-term on-the-job training $27,732 $13.33
Computer Specialists, All Other 8,800 10,040 1,240 14% 315 Associate degree $77,032 $37.03
Occupational Health & Safety Specialists 5,840 6,660 820 14% 275 Bachelor's degree $59,822 $28.76
Oral & Maxillofacial Surgeons 500 570 70 14% 20 First professional degree - -
Entertainers & Performers, Sports & Related Wkrs, All Other 430 490 60 14% 15 Long-term on-the-job training - $18.89
Orthotists & Prosthetists 430 490 60 14% 15 Bachelor's degree $80,035 $38.48
Stock Clerks & Order Fillers 133,570 154,180 20,610 15% 5,135 Short-term on-the-job training $22,576 $10.85
Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, & Samplers, Recordkeeping 6,370 5,820 -550 -9% 220 Short-term on-the-job training $26,575 $12.78
Actors 1,670 1,900 230 14% 65 Long-term on-the-job training - $19.70
Reinforcing Iron & Rebar Wkrs 4,070 4,630 560 14% 120 Long-term on-the-job training $29,540 $14.20
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Correctional Officers 5,970 6,790 820 14% 295 Work experience in a related occupation $46,111 $22.17
Engineering Technicians, Ex. Drafters, All Other 4,960 5,640 680 14% 165 Associate degree $55,795 $26.82
Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, & Gaugers 14,520 16,510 1,990 14% 535 Long-term on-the-job training $53,172 $25.56
Structural Iron & Steel Wkrs 7,450 8,470 1,020 14% 225 Long-term on-the-job training $36,325 $17.46
Compensation & Benefits Managers 2,780 3,160 380 14% 100 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $98,559 $47.38
Stonemasons 1,610 1,830 220 14% 60 Long-term on-the-job training $31,032 $14.92
Managers, All Other 27,100 30,790 3,690 14% 1,070 Work experience in a related occupation $99,452 $47.81
Medical Secretaries 35,050 45,550 10,500 30% 1,520 Moderate-term on-the-job training $28,267 $13.59
Graphic Designers 15,420 17,510 2,090 14% 685 Bachelor's degree $44,350 $21.32
Chefs & Head Cooks 6,420 7,290 870 14% 150 Work experience in a related occupation $39,759 $19.11
Engineers, All Other 12,330 14,000 1,670 14% 420 Bachelor's degree $96,593 $46.44
Archivists 370 420 50 14% 15 Master's degree $48,352 $23.25
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Housekeeping & Janitorial Wkrs 16,230 18,420 2,190 13% 390 Work experience in a related occupation $31,127 $14.96
Secretaries, Ex. Legal, Medical, & Executive 176,110 194,200 18,090 10% 4,185 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,974 $13.45
Property, Real Estate, & Community Association Managers 28,400 32,230 3,830 13% 875 Bachelor's degree $49,419 $23.76
Computer Operators 6,000 5,120 -880 -15% 70 Moderate-term on-the-job training $35,382 $17.01
Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Ex. Engines 14,130 16,020 1,890 13% 460 Long-term on-the-job training $39,527 $19.00
Data Entry Keyers 20,100 19,040 -1,060 -5% 420 Moderate-term on-the-job training $26,053 $12.53
Dancers 600 680 80 13% 40 Long-term on-the-job training - $14.08
Hydrologists 450 510 60 13% 20 Master's degree $71,396 $34.33
Word Processors & Typists 3,340 3,210 -130 -4% 25 Moderate-term on-the-job training $32,539 $15.64
Desktop Publishers 1,480 1,280 -200 -14% 25 Postsecondary vocational training $40,595 $19.52
Insurance Claims & Policy Processing Clerks 11,770 13,160 1,390 12% 295 Moderate-term on-the-job training $35,659 $17.14
Mail Clerks & Mail Machine Operators, Ex. Postal Service 7,800 7,210 -590 -8% 140 Short-term on-the-job training $26,601 $12.79
Natural Sciences Managers 1,600 1,810 210 13% 65 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $131,476 $63.21
Office Clerks, General 239,400 279,000 39,600 17% 7,220 Short-term on-the-job training $26,915 $12.94
Real Estate Brokers 6,120 6,920 800 13% 180 Work experience in a related occupation $89,122 $42.85
Office Machine Operators, Ex. Computer 5,940 5,630 -310 -5% 195 Short-term on-the-job training $27,387 $13.17
Proofreaders & Copy Markers 680 670 -10 -1% 10 Short-term on-the-job training $27,649 $13.29
Statistical Assistants 790 880 90 11% 25 Moderate-term on-the-job training $47,515 $22.84
Artists & Related Wkrs, All Other 460 520 60 13% 15 Long-term on-the-job training $55,833 $26.84
Office & Administrative Support Wkrs, All Other 8,040 7,450 -590 -7% 185 Short-term on-the-job training $34,230 $16.46
Fish & Game Wardens 460 520 60 13% 15 Associate degree $48,948 $23.53
Agricultural Equipment Operators 4,840 4,860 20 0% 135 Short-term on-the-job training $21,425 $10.30
Farmworkers & Laborers, Crop, Nursery, & Greenhouse 126,030 139,050 13,020 10% 4,700 Short-term on-the-job training $18,751 $9.01
Farmworkers, Farm & Ranch Animals 28,940 32,260 3,320 11% 1,110 Short-term on-the-job training $21,328 $10.25
Forest & Conservation Technicians 470 530 60 13% 25 Associate degree $36,383 $17.49
Surveyors 4,650 5,240 590 13% 180 Bachelor's degree $52,514 $25.25
Aerospace Engineering & Operations Technicians 870 980 110 13% 25 Associate degree $62,338 $29.97
Agricultural Wkrs, All Other 730 750 20 3% 20 Short-term on-the-job training $22,001 $10.58
Occupational Health & Safety Technicians 1,360 1,530 170 13% 60 Associate degree $49,312 $23.71
Fishers & Related Fishing Wkrs 530 530 0 0% 15 Moderate-term on-the-job training - -
Cooks, Private Household 160 180 20 13% 5 Long-term on-the-job training - -
Electricians 50,640 56,960 6,320 12% 1,860 Long-term on-the-job training $41,571 $19.99
Home Appliance Repairers 3,930 4,420 490 12% 110 Long-term on-the-job training $33,459 $16.09
Financial Managers 30,170 33,920 3,750 12% 920 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $113,123 $54.39
Plasterers & Stucco Masons 4,060 4,560 500 12% 115 Long-term on-the-job training $33,537 $16.12
Camera Operators, Television, Video, & Motion Picture 1,300 1,460 160 12% 45 Bachelor's degree $34,865 $16.76
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Retail Sales Wkrs 144,380 161,900 17,520 12% 4,850 Work experience in a related occupation $39,196 $18.84
Glaziers 5,290 5,930 640 12% 255 Long-term on-the-job training $31,154 $14.98
Physical Scientists, All Other 1,160 1,300 140 12% 45 Bachelor's degree $86,714 $41.69
Hunters & Trappers 170 190 20 12% 10 Moderate-term on-the-job training - -
Forest & Conservation Wkrs 290 300 10 3% 10 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,503 $13.22
Commercial & Industrial Designers 1,340 1,500 160 12% 55 Bachelor's degree $57,671 $27.73
Marketing Managers 9,990 11,180 1,190 12% 335 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $127,077 $61.09
Fallers 270 250 -20 -7% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $32,048 $15.41
Logging Equipment Operators 1,040 1,100 60 6% 35 Moderate-term on-the-job training $31,035 $14.92
Appraisers & Assessors of Real Estate 7,310 8,170 860 12% 220 Associate degree $51,665 $24.84
Motorcycle Mechanics 1,530 1,710 180 12% 50 Long-term on-the-job training $33,552 $16.13
Foresters 170 190 20 12% 0 Bachelor's degree $57,522 $27.65
Log Graders & Scalers 40 40 0 0% 0 Moderate-term on-the-job training $37,931 $18.24
Logging Wkrs, All Other 120 130 10 8% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $33,590 $16.15
Carpet Installers 1,810 1,880 70 4% 50 Moderate-term on-the-job training $28,824 $13.86
Economists 860 960 100 12% 35 Master's degree $91,815 $44.14
Producers & Directors 4,820 5,380 560 12% 205 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $62,107 $29.86
Mechanical Engineers 18,850 21,040 2,190 12% 705 Bachelor's degree $90,094 $43.31
Motorboat Mechanics 1,210 1,350 140 12% 40 Long-term on-the-job training $35,059 $16.86
Floor Layers, Ex. Carpet, Wood, & Hard Tiles 980 1,020 40 4% 30 Moderate-term on-the-job training $33,143 $15.93
Floor Sanders & Finishers 410 490 80 20% 20 Moderate-term on-the-job training $26,413 $12.70
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Mechanics, Installers, & Installers, & Repairers 37,840 42,180 4,340 11% 1,425 Work experience in a related occupation $58,177 $27.97
Cement Masons & Concrete Finishers 19,640 22,290 2,650 13% 760 Moderate-term on-the-job training $28,974 $13.93
Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors 350 390 40 11% 10 Work experience in a related occupation $58,145 $27.95
Construction Laborers 141,810 172,710 30,900 22% 4,040 Moderate-term on-the-job training $23,623 $11.36
Paving, Surfacing, & Tamping Equipment Operators 6,080 7,030 950 16% 195 Moderate-term on-the-job training $28,617 $13.76
Automotive Glass Installers & Repairers 1,680 1,870 190 11% 55 Long-term on-the-job training $32,782 $15.76
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Farming, Fishing, & Forestry Wkrs 2,310 2,570 260 11% 85 Work experience in a related occupation $33,279 $16.00
Zoologists & Wildlife Biologists 890 990 100 11% 40 Bachelor's degree $45,712 $21.98
Pile-Driver Operators 320 360 40 13% 10 Moderate-term on-the-job training $38,236 $18.38
Plant & System Operators, All Other 360 400 40 11% 15 Long-term on-the-job training $47,340 $22.76
Operating Engineers & Other Construction Equipment Operators 41,230 47,570 6,340 15% 1,345 Moderate-term on-the-job training $33,847 $16.27
Drywall & Ceiling Tile Installers 14,650 17,720 3,070 21% 465 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,104 $14.47
Tapers 1,040 1,240 200 19% 30 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,204 $14.52
Farm, Ranch, & Other Agricultural Managers 9,910 10,990 1,080 11% 310 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $55,980 $26.91
Insulation Wkrs, Floor, Ceiling, & Wall 2,620 3,160 540 21% 140 Moderate-term on-the-job training $28,290 $13.60
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Non-Retail Sales Wkrs 44,560 49,370 4,810 11% 1,405 Work experience in a related occupation $79,715 $38.32
Insulation Wkrs, Mechanical 3,250 3,850 600 18% 165 Moderate-term on-the-job training $35,304 $16.97
Animal Breeders 380 420 40 11% 15 Work experience in a related occupation $33,549 $16.13
Painters, Construction & Maintenance 35,100 40,180 5,080 14% 1,110 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,471 $14.65
Farm Equipment Mechanics 2,200 2,430 230 10% 65 Long-term on-the-job training $33,484 $16.10
Opticians, Dispensing 4,020 4,440 420 10% 120 Long-term on-the-job training $27,627 $13.28
Legislators 1,830 2,020 190 10% 70 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $29,263 -
Paperhangers 660 600 -60 -9% 0 Moderate-term on-the-job training $29,321 $14.10
Pipelayers 7,730 9,450 1,720 22% 330 Short-term on-the-job training $28,641 $13.77
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Helpers, Laborers, & Material Movers, Hand 15,270 16,850 1,580 10% 425 Work experience in a related occupation $41,745 $20.07
Roofers 8,940 9,540 600 7% 205 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,066 $14.45
Podiatrists 680 750 70 10% 15 First professional degree $166,215 $79.91
Helpers--Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, & Tile & Marble Setters 4,630 5,520 890 19% 185 Short-term on-the-job training $24,541 $11.80
Medical Appliance Technicians 880 970 90 10% 25 Long-term on-the-job training $35,248 $16.95
Helpers--Carpenters 3,990 5,010 1,020 26% 185 Short-term on-the-job training $23,085 $11.10
Helpers--Electricians 16,020 19,510 3,490 22% 685 Short-term on-the-job training $26,301 $12.64
Education Administrators, Postsecondary 8,450 9,310 860 10% 340 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $102,453 $49.26
Helpers--Painters, Paperhangers, Plasterers, & Stucco Masons 2,640 2,660 20 1% 55 Short-term on-the-job training $23,511 $11.30
Helpers--Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, & Steamfitters 13,190 16,160 2,970 23% 570 Short-term on-the-job training $26,543 $12.76
Millwrights 2,210 2,430 220 10% 65 Long-term on-the-job training $43,962 $21.14
Helpers--Roofers 1,260 1,160 -100 -8% 25 Short-term on-the-job training $21,687 $10.43
Helpers, Construction Trades, All Other 1,870 2,150 280 15% 70 Short-term on-the-job training $24,038 $11.56
Health & Safety Engineers, Ex. Mining Safety Engineers & Inspectors 2,820 3,090 270 10% 95 Bachelor's degree $82,255 $39.55
Telecommunications Line Installers & Repairers 17,520 19,180 1,660 9% 435 Long-term on-the-job training $42,677 $20.52
Fence Erectors 3,250 3,750 500 15% 85 Moderate-term on-the-job training $25,188 $12.11
Sales Representatives, Wholesale & Manufacturing, Technical & Scientific Products 33,130 36,250 3,120 9% 1,075 Work experience in a related occupation $86,828 $41.74
Hazardous Materials Removal Wkrs 5,000 5,510 510 10% 185 Moderate-term on-the-job training $32,537 $15.64
Highway Maintenance Wkrs 3,230 3,840 610 19% 150 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,842 $13.39
Rail-Track Laying & Maintenance Equipment Operators 2,320 2,670 350 15% 100 Moderate-term on-the-job training - -
Septic Tank Servicers & Sewer Pipe Cleaners 930 1,140 210 23% 45 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,689 $13.31
Segmental Pavers 150 160 10 7% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $34,468 $16.57
Tailors, Dressmakers, & Custom Sewers 4,700 5,130 430 9% 95 Long-term on-the-job training $28,651 $13.77
Sales Representatives, Wholesale & Manufacturing, Ex. Technical & Scientific Products 120,400 131,310 10,910 9% 3,880 Work experience in a related occupation $59,224 $28.47
Construction & Related Wkrs, All Other 4,410 5,020 610 14% 210 Moderate-term on-the-job training $33,798 $16.25
Derrick Operators, Oil & Gas 8,720 8,820 100 1% 160 Moderate-term on-the-job training $41,777 $20.08
Rotary Drill Operators, Oil & Gas 9,100 9,420 320 4% 185 Moderate-term on-the-job training $72,634 $34.92
Service Unit Operators, Oil, Gas, & Mining 19,560 21,840 2,280 12% 560 Moderate-term on-the-job training $42,838 $20.60
Bakers 10,060 10,910 850 8% 345 Long-term on-the-job training $21,747 $10.46
Insurance Underwriters 5,380 5,830 450 8% 200 Bachelor's degree $62,075 $29.84
Purchasing Managers 4,440 4,810 370 8% 160 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $108,086 $51.96
Historians 120 130 10 8% 5 Master's degree $53,587 $25.76
Earth Drillers, Ex. Oil & Gas 2,230 2,590 360 16% 75 Moderate-term on-the-job training $42,213 $20.29
Explosives Wkrs, Ordnance Handling Experts, & Blasters 410 430 20 5% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $56,005 $26.93
Recreational Vehicle Service Technicians 1,230 1,330 100 8% 35 Long-term on-the-job training $35,367 $17.00
Fashion Designers 250 270 20 8% 10 Associate degree $58,031 $27.90
Continuous Mining Machine Operators 170 180 10 6% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $31,191 $15.00
Chemists 5,410 5,840 430 8% 220 Bachelor's degree $72,188 $34.71
Mine Cutting & Channeling Machine Operators 150 160 10 7% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $40,912 $19.67
Rock Splitters, Quarry 490 500 10 2% 10 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,680 $14.75
Roustabouts, Oil & Gas 27,420 31,220 3,800 14% 850 Moderate-term on-the-job training $31,985 $15.38
Helpers--Extraction Wkrs 7,910 7,560 -350 -4% 135 Short-term on-the-job training $40,292 $19.37
Computer, Automated Teller, & Office Machine Repairers 12,410 12,670 260 2% 240 Postsecondary vocational training $35,822 $17.22
Radio Mechanics 480 480 0 0% 10 Postsecondary vocational training $41,148 $19.78
Engineering Managers 12,540 13,500 960 8% 350 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $134,100 $64.47
Telecommunications Equipment Installers & Repairers, Ex. Line Installers 18,010 19,680 1,670 9% 480 Postsecondary vocational training $45,515 $21.88
Sheet Metal Wkrs 13,580 14,610 1,030 8% 430 Long-term on-the-job training $34,854 $16.76
Avionics Technicians 2,570 2,850 280 11% 75 Postsecondary vocational training $48,423 $23.28
Rail Car Repairers 1,980 2,130 150 8% 55 Long-term on-the-job training $41,918 $20.15
Electric Motor, Power Tool, & Related Repairers 2,580 2,830 250 10% 115 Postsecondary vocational training $31,540 $15.16
Electrical & Electronics Installers & Repairers, Transportation Equipment 950 1,040 90 9% 25 Postsecondary vocational training $46,389 $22.30
Electrical & Electronics Repairers, Commercial & Industrial Equipment 5,050 5,710 660 13% 150 Postsecondary vocational training $51,257 $24.64
Shoe & Leather Wkrs & Repairers 1,930 2,070 140 7% 40 Long-term on-the-job training $22,531 $10.83
Electrical & Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, & Relay 1,550 2,260 710 46% 95 Postsecondary vocational training $55,250 $26.56
Electronic Equipment Installers & Repairers, Motor Vehicles 2,220 2,370 150 7% 55 Postsecondary vocational training $27,552 $13.25
Automotive Body & Related Repairers 11,690 12,520 830 7% 385 Long-term on-the-job training $39,831 $19.15
Advertising & Promotions Managers 3,020 3,230 210 7% 90 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $80,433 $38.67
Broadcast News Analysts 440 470 30 7% 15 Bachelor's degree $80,058 $38.49
Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installers & Repairers 4,410 5,090 680 15% 140 Postsecondary vocational training $31,500 $15.14
Security & Fire Alarm Systems Installers 4,990 6,430 1,440 29% 230 Postsecondary vocational training $35,168 $16.91
Aircraft Mechanics & Service Technicians 16,480 18,190 1,710 10% 490 Postsecondary vocational training $50,331 $24.20
Automotive Service Technicians & Mechanics 55,610 62,620 7,010 13% 1,760 Postsecondary vocational training $37,485 $18.02
Bus & Truck Mechanics & Diesel Engine Specialists 20,350 22,360 2,010 10% 665 Postsecondary vocational training $38,222 $18.38
Outdoor Power Equipment & Other Small Engine Mechanics 1,650 1,840 190 12% 55 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,246 $14.54
Bicycle Repairers 520 660 140 27% 25 Moderate-term on-the-job training $23,391 $11.25
Tire Repairers & Changers 10,840 11,850 1,010 9% 325 Short-term on-the-job training $23,151 $11.13
New Accounts Clerks 7,370 7,830 460 6% 255 Work experience in a related occupation $30,021 $14.43
Mechanical Door Repairers 1,210 1,430 220 18% 40 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,897 $14.85
Control & Valve Installers & Repairers, Ex. Mechanical Door 5,680 6,440 760 13% 165 Moderate-term on-the-job training $41,240 $19.83
Heating, Air Conditioning, & Refrigeration Mechanics & Installers 25,040 32,790 7,750 31% 1,180 Postsecondary vocational training $38,591 $18.55
Sales Engineers 4,670 4,950 280 6% 200 Bachelor's degree $95,076 $45.71
Maintenance & Repair Wkrs, General 102,770 121,520 18,750 18% 3,455 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,835 $14.82
Broadcast Technicians 2,590 2,740 150 6% 95 Associate degree $38,282 $18.40
Purchasing Agents & Buyers, Farm Products 520 550 30 6% 15 Long-term on-the-job training $61,541 $29.59
Maintenance Wkrs, Machinery 5,440 6,150 710 13% 155 Moderate-term on-the-job training $36,554 $17.57
Musical Instrument Repairers & Tuners 700 740 40 6% 25 Long-term on-the-job training $35,869 $17.24
Elevator Installers & Repairers 2,150 2,270 120 6% 75 Long-term on-the-job training $60,135 $28.91
Industrial Engineering Technicians 6,470 6,820 350 5% 155 Associate degree $52,303 $25.15
Refractory Materials Repairers, Ex. Brickmasons 210 200 -10 -5% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $37,257 $17.91
Precision Instrument & Equipment Repairers, All Other 1,840 2,100 260 14% 80 Moderate-term on-the-job training $47,853 $23.01
Chief Executives 18,150 19,080 930 5% 600 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $172,285 $82.83
Marine Engineers & Naval Architects 1,000 1,050 50 5% 25 Bachelor's degree - -
Editors 6,830 7,170 340 5% 215 Bachelor's degree $50,247 $24.16
Coin, Vending, & Amusement Machine Servicers & Repairers 2,540 2,760 220 9% 105 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,132 $13.04
Judges, Magistrate Judges, & Magistrates 2,680 2,810 130 5% 65 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $76,079 $36.58
Commercial Divers 350 400 50 14% 10 Postsecondary vocational training $59,548 $28.63
Locksmiths & Safe Repairers 1,690 2,020 330 20% 60 Moderate-term on-the-job training $34,116 $16.40
Manufactured Building & Mobile Home Installers 540 590 50 9% 10 Moderate-term on-the-job training $26,050 $12.52
Riggers 2,670 2,840 170 6% 55 Short-term on-the-job training $40,662 $19.55
Chemical Engineers 4,830 5,040 210 4% 140 Bachelor's degree $99,069 $47.63
Signal & Track Switch Repairers 300 310 10 3% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training - -
Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, & Repair Wkrs 15,210 17,200 1,990 13% 930 Short-term on-the-job training $24,779 $11.91
Installation, Maintenance, & Repair Wkrs, All Other 6,640 7,590 950 14% 195 Moderate-term on-the-job training $34,295 $16.49
Aircraft Structure, Surfaces, Rigging, & Systems Assemblers 2,760 3,180 420 15% 100 Moderate-term on-the-job training $44,371 $21.33
Coil Winders, Tapers, & Finishers 940 850 -90 -10% 15 Short-term on-the-job training $29,724 $14.29
Electrical & Electronic Equipment Assemblers 19,910 19,020 -890 -4% 305 Short-term on-the-job training $30,266 $14.55
Graders & Sorters, Agricultural Products 2,500 2,600 100 4% 60 Work experience in a related occupation $19,030 $9.15
Electromechanical Equipment Assemblers 6,520 6,480 -40 -1% 100 Short-term on-the-job training $27,922 $13.42
Chemical Technicians 6,910 7,170 260 4% 165 Associate degree $48,599 $23.36
Engine & Other Machine Assemblers 3,760 3,760 0 0% 80 Short-term on-the-job training $34,714 $16.69
Mechanical Engineering Technicians 5,310 5,500 190 4% 120 Associate degree $51,774 $24.89
Structural Metal Fabricators & Fitters 17,340 17,450 110 1% 375 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,944 $14.88
Fiberglass Laminators & Fabricators 1,990 1,830 -160 -8% 45 Moderate-term on-the-job training $26,184 $12.59
General & Operations Managers 153,780 159,070 5,290 3% 4,985 Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience $110,904 $53.32
Reporters & Correspondents 4,170 4,310 140 3% 130 Bachelor's degree $38,417 $18.47
Team Assemblers 59,060 63,370 4,310 7% 1,760 Moderate-term on-the-job training $24,563 $11.81
Furniture Finishers 1,580 1,630 50 3% 40 Long-term on-the-job training $24,651 $11.85
Timing Device Assemblers, Adjusters, & Calibrators 90 100 10 11% 0 Moderate-term on-the-job training $36,073 $17.34
Assemblers & Fabricators, All Other 15,700 17,540 1,840 12% 540 Moderate-term on-the-job training $28,447 $13.68
Meat, Poultry, & Fish Cutters & Trimmers 8,670 9,780 1,110 13% 390 Short-term on-the-job training $20,989 $10.09
Slaughterers & Meat Packers 11,520 12,680 1,160 10% 485 Moderate-term on-the-job training $23,279 $11.19
Food & Tobacco Roasting, Baking, & Drying Machine Operators & Tenders 1,040 1,120 80 8% 40 Short-term on-the-job training $23,345 $11.22
Food Batchmakers 6,860 8,390 1,530 22% 320 Short-term on-the-job training $21,495 $10.33
Model Makers, Metal & Plastic 360 370 10 3% 0 Long-term on-the-job training $36,492 $17.54
Food Cooking Machine Operators & Tenders 2,620 2,960 340 13% 110 Short-term on-the-job training $21,912 $10.53
Computer-Controlled Machine Tool Operators, Metal & Plastic 8,900 10,280 1,380 16% 315 Moderate-term on-the-job training $34,528 $16.60
Electrical Engineers 13,860 14,190 330 2% 355 Bachelor's degree $92,327 $44.39
Extruding & Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Metal & Plastic 7,310 7,070 -240 -3% 145 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,914 $13.42
Forging Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Metal & Plastic 2,280 2,030 -250 -11% 45 Moderate-term on-the-job training $32,075 $15.42
Wholesale & Retail Buyers, Ex. Farm Products 11,390 11,630 240 2% 310 Long-term on-the-job training $58,026 $27.90
Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Metal & Plastic 2,560 2,370 -190 -7% 50 Moderate-term on-the-job training $29,732 $14.29
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Production & Operating Wkrs 53,980 55,090 1,110 2% 840 Work experience in a related occupation $55,465 $26.67
Cutting, Punching, & Press Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Metal & Plastic 14,820 13,780 -1,040 -7% 295 Moderate-term on-the-job training $26,905 $12.94
Drilling & Boring Machine Tool Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Metal & Plastic 1,670 1,310 -360 -22% 15 Moderate-term on-the-job training $32,568 $15.66
Grinding, Lapping, Polishing, & Buffing Mach Tool Setters, Oprs, & Tenders, Metal & Plastic 6,630 5,800 -830 -13% 95 Moderate-term on-the-job training $26,617 $12.80
Lathe & Turning Machine Tool Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Metal & Plastic 5,940 4,750 -1,190 -20% 95 Moderate-term on-the-job training $31,370 $15.08
Milling & Planing Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Metal & Plastic 1,790 1,570 -220 -12% 35 Moderate-term on-the-job training $35,344 $16.99
Electro-Mechanical Technicians 680 690 10 1% 15 Associate degree $53,317 $25.63
Electronics Engineers, Ex. Computer 12,760 12,940 180 1% 315 Bachelor's degree $87,420 $42.03
First-Line Supervisors/Mgrs of Transportation & Material-Moving Mach & Vehicle Oprs 15,660 15,840 180 1% 290 Work experience in a related occupation $53,313 $25.63
Metal-Refining Furnace Operators & Tenders 1,570 1,430 -140 -9% 30 Moderate-term on-the-job training $31,160 $14.98
Etchers & Engravers 880 890 10 1% 5 Long-term on-the-job training $27,090 $13.02
Pourers & Casters, Metal 960 850 -110 -11% 20 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,562 $14.69
Computer Hardware Engineers 4,260 4,300 40 1% 125 Bachelor's degree $98,295 $47.26
Foundry Mold & Coremakers 1,250 1,020 -230 -18% 25 Moderate-term on-the-job training $24,335 $11.70
Molding, Coremaking, & Casting Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Metal & Plastic 6,170 6,100 -70 -1% 130 Moderate-term on-the-job training $25,541 $12.28
Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Metal & Plastic 4,670 4,200 -470 -10% 90 Moderate-term on-the-job training $28,655 $13.78
Crane & Tower Operators 4,370 4,390 20 0% 100 Long-term on-the-job training $47,465 $22.82
Welders, Cutters, Solderers, & Brazers 55,820 58,140 2,320 4% 1,940 Postsecondary vocational training $36,905 $17.74
Welding, Soldering, & Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders 2,230 2,230 0 0% 70 Postsecondary vocational training $31,881 $15.33
Transportation, Storage, & Distribution Managers 9,520 9,550 30 0% 265 Work experience in a related occupation $88,603 $42.60
Chemical Plant & System Operators 10,860 10,870 10 0% 250 Long-term on-the-job training $61,884 $29.75
Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Metal & Plastic 2,250 2,150 -100 -4% 100 Moderate-term on-the-job training $29,219 $14.05
Industrial Production Managers 12,770 12,780 10 0% 450 Work experience in a related occupation $114,091 $54.85
Electrical & Electronic Engineering Technicians 15,670 15,680 10 0% 295 Associate degree $56,352 $27.09
Mathematical Technicians 30 30 0 0% 0 Associate degree $47,512 $22.84
Lay-Out Wkrs, Metal & Plastic 1,580 1,420 -160 -10% 30 Moderate-term on-the-job training $35,114 $16.88
Forest Fire Inspectors & Prevention Specialists 30 30 0 0% 0 Work experience in a related occupation $47,277 $22.73
Plating & Coating Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Metal & Plastic 3,100 2,950 -150 -5% 85 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,973 $13.45
Tool Grinders, Filers, & Sharpeners 840 840 0 0% 25 Moderate-term on-the-job training $29,395 $14.13
Metal Wkrs & Plastic Wkrs, All Other 830 890 60 7% 15 Moderate-term on-the-job training $37,740 $18.14
Bindery Wkrs 3,330 2,800 -530 -16% 50 Short-term on-the-job training $26,479 $12.73
Bookbinders 410 380 -30 -7% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $44,030 $21.17
Prepress Technicians & Wkrs 4,270 3,740 -530 -12% 55 Postsecondary vocational training $32,556 $15.65
Printing Machine Operators 10,950 10,960 10 0% 230 Moderate-term on-the-job training $33,197 $15.96
Laundry & Dry-Cleaning Wkrs 17,370 18,430 1,060 6% 410 Moderate-term on-the-job training $17,854 $8.58
Job Printers 2,370 2,370 0 0% 10 Long-term on-the-job training $29,831 $14.34
Pressers, Textile, Garment, & Related Materials 6,920 6,670 -250 -4% 30 Short-term on-the-job training $18,025 $8.67
Sewing Machine Operators 9,770 8,790 -980 -10% 55 Moderate-term on-the-job training $19,447 $9.35
Shoe Machine Operators & Tenders 740 770 30 4% 15 Moderate-term on-the-job training $29,872 $14.36
Machinists 34,580 34,570 -10 0% 455 Long-term on-the-job training $36,637 $17.61
Sewers, Hand 680 700 20 3% 5 Short-term on-the-job training $23,820 $11.45
Cabinetmakers & Bench Carpenters 11,880 11,850 -30 0% 270 Long-term on-the-job training $25,600 $12.31
Textile Bleaching & Dyeing Machine Operators & Tenders 110 110 0 0% 0 Moderate-term on-the-job training $22,386 $10.76
Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders 510 480 -30 -6% 10 Moderate-term on-the-job training $19,282 $9.27
Farmers & Ranchers 247,660 245,820 -1,840 -1% 1,515 Long-term on-the-job training - -
Textile Winding, Twisting, & Drawing Out Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders 760 610 -150 -20% 15 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,324 $13.14
Extruding & Forming Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Synthetic & Glass Fibers 1,210 860 -350 -29% 15 Moderate-term on-the-job training $28,762 $13.83
Tool & Die Makers 2,100 2,080 -20 -1% 15 Long-term on-the-job training $43,992 $21.15
Textile, Apparel, & Furnishings Wkrs, All Other 920 980 60 7% 20 Short-term on-the-job training $22,769 $10.95
Sawing Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Wood 3,100 2,990 -110 -4% 55 Moderate-term on-the-job training $23,699 $11.39
Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders, Ex. Sawing 7,620 7,760 140 2% 170 Moderate-term on-the-job training $22,467 $10.80
Woodworkers, All Other 260 280 20 8% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $33,299 $16.01
Patternmakers, Metal & Plastic 480 470 -10 -2% 5 Long-term on-the-job training $32,613 $15.68
Chemical Equipment Operators & Tenders 7,010 7,080 70 1% 65 Moderate-term on-the-job training $47,673 $22.92
Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, & Still Mach Setters, Oprs, & Tenders 2,970 3,680 710 24% 95 Moderate-term on-the-job training $36,154 $17.38
Crushing, Grinding, & Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders 5,390 5,530 140 3% 105 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,927 $13.43
Grinding & Polishing Wkrs, Hand 2,830 3,040 210 7% 70 Moderate-term on-the-job training $25,324 $12.17
Mixing & Blending Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders 11,470 14,440 2,970 26% 490 Moderate-term on-the-job training $29,976 $14.41
Cutters & Trimmers, Hand 1,390 1,350 -40 -3% 30 Short-term on-the-job training $22,519 $10.83
Radio & Television Announcers 3,120 3,000 -120 -4% 90 Long-term on-the-job training $41,943 $20.16
Cutting & Slicing Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders 5,090 5,190 100 2% 120 Moderate-term on-the-job training $24,649 $11.85
Extruding, Forming, Pressing, & Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders 5,620 6,690 1,070 19% 220 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,974 $13.45
Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, & Kettle Operators & Tenders 1,740 1,670 -70 -4% 20 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,676 $14.75
Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, & Weighers 32,830 33,840 1,010 3% 650 Moderate-term on-the-job training $33,164 $15.94
Jewelers & Precious Stone & Metal Wkrs 3,450 3,720 270 8% 95 Postsecondary vocational training $30,960 $14.88
Dental Laboratory Technicians 2,280 2,580 300 13% 75 Moderate-term on-the-job training $33,343 $16.03
Choreographers 1,320 1,260 -60 -5% 60 Work experience in a related occupation $39,823 $19.15
Fabric & Apparel Patternmakers 440 420 -20 -5% 5 Long-term on-the-job training $24,398 $11.73
Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians 2,610 3,010 400 15% 90 Moderate-term on-the-job training $24,151 $11.61
Computer Programmers 32,950 31,380 -1,570 -5% 620 Bachelor's degree $77,500 $37.26
Packaging & Filling Machine Operators & Tenders 23,570 25,010 1,440 6% 540 Short-term on-the-job training $25,081 $12.06
Coating, Painting, & Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders 8,330 9,040 710 9% 290 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,689 $13.31
Painters, Transportation Equipment 4,720 5,140 420 9% 170 Moderate-term on-the-job training $35,924 $17.27
Postmasters & Mail Superintendents 1,280 1,210 -70 -5% 25 Work experience in a related occupation $60,514 $29.09
Painting, Coating, & Decorating Wkrs 2,060 2,370 310 15% 85 Short-term on-the-job training $22,872 $11.00
Photographic Process Wkrs 630 640 10 2% 15 Short-term on-the-job training $29,522 $14.19
Photographic Processing Machine Operators 3,230 2,460 -770 -24% 80 Short-term on-the-job training $20,650 $9.93
Semiconductor Processors 4,920 3,820 -1,100 -22% 100 Postsecondary vocational training $34,543 $16.61
Cementing & Gluing Machine Operators & Tenders 1,900 1,770 -130 -7% 45 Moderate-term on-the-job training $28,656 $13.78
Cleaning, Washing, & Metal Pickling Equipment Operators & Tenders 2,210 2,370 160 7% 60 Moderate-term on-the-job training $21,906 $10.53
Cooling & Freezing Equipment Operators & Tenders 470 500 30 6% 15 Moderate-term on-the-job training $23,480 $11.29
Molders, Shapers, & Casters, Ex. Metal & Plastic 2,360 2,410 50 2% 120 Moderate-term on-the-job training $24,926 $11.98
Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders 4,250 4,000 -250 -6% 90 Moderate-term on-the-job training $27,717 $13.33
Tire Builders 510 490 -20 -4% 20 Moderate-term on-the-job training $23,836 $11.46
Helpers--Production Wkrs 33,860 34,860 1,000 3% 690 Short-term on-the-job training $21,292 $10.24
Camera & Photographic Equipment Repairers 270 250 -20 -7% 10 Long-term on-the-job training $40,265 $19.36
Production Wkrs, All Other 7,110 7,770 660 9% 230 Moderate-term on-the-job training $24,807 $11.93
Commercial Pilots 4,240 5,120 880 21% 235 Postsecondary vocational training $69,205 -
Ambulance Drivers & Attendants, Ex. Emergency Medical Technicians 340 420 80 24% 15 Moderate-term on-the-job training $21,858 $10.51
Bus Drivers, Transit & Intercity 12,970 15,100 2,130 16% 440 Moderate-term on-the-job training $32,728 $15.73
Bus Drivers, School 31,830 37,380 5,550 17% 1,110 Moderate-term on-the-job training $23,496 $11.30
Patternmakers, Wood 250 230 -20 -8% 5 Long-term on-the-job training $28,463 $13.68
Driver/Sales Wkrs 33,330 37,760 4,430 13% 1,040 Short-term on-the-job training $24,455 $11.76
Model Makers, Wood 240 220 -20 -8% 5 Long-term on-the-job training $33,691 $16.20
Truck Drivers, Heavy & Tractor-Trailer 148,160 169,960 21,800 15% 4,830 Short-term on-the-job training $36,785 $17.69
Truck Drivers, Light or Delivery Services 71,920 78,540 6,620 9% 1,945 Short-term on-the-job training $29,143 $14.01
Taxi Drivers & Chauffeurs 15,400 18,670 3,270 21% 600 Short-term on-the-job training $20,972 $10.08
Motor Vehicle Operators, All Other 3,160 3,510 350 11% 90 Short-term on-the-job training $31,908 $15.34
Locomotive Engineers 2,710 3,020 310 11% 120 Moderate-term on-the-job training $56,560 $27.19
Watch Repairers 110 100 -10 -9% 5 Long-term on-the-job training $27,312 $13.13
Numerical Tool & Process Control Programmers 1,170 1,060 -110 -9% 25 Work experience in a related occupation $49,996 $24.04
Locomotive Firers 90 100 10 11% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $46,751 $22.48
Rail Yard Engineers, Dinkey Operators, & Hostlers 350 410 60 17% 15 Moderate-term on-the-job training $30,531 $14.68
Rail Transportation Wkrs, All Other 130 130 0 0% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $45,398 $21.83
Sailors & Marine Oilers 3,570 4,180 610 17% 215 Short-term on-the-job training $39,576 $19.03
Motorboat Operators 130 150 20 15% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $32,070 $15.42
Bridge & Lock Tenders 40 40 0 0% 0 Short-term on-the-job training $43,119 $20.73
Textile Knitting & Weaving Machine Setters, Operators, & Tenders 350 310 -40 -11% 0 Long-term on-the-job training $20,628 $9.92
Parking Lot Attendants 9,470 9,850 380 4% 380 Short-term on-the-job training $19,069 $9.17
Service Station Attendants 9,890 10,930 1,040 11% 515 Short-term on-the-job training $19,608 $9.43
Traffic Technicians 380 460 80 21% 25 Short-term on-the-job training $41,154 $19.79
Transportation Wkrs, All Other 4,280 5,010 730 17% 230 Short-term on-the-job training $31,008 $14.91
Conveyor Operators & Tenders 2,790 2,720 -70 -3% 80 Short-term on-the-job training $25,364 $12.19
Dredge Operators 130 140 10 8% 5 Moderate-term on-the-job training $38,075 $18.31
Excavating & Loading Machine & Dragline Operators 6,500 7,270 770 12% 265 Moderate-term on-the-job training $31,361 $15.08
Industrial Truck & Tractor Operators 46,010 50,070 4,060 9% 1,775 Short-term on-the-job training $26,722 $12.85
Cleaners of Vehicles & Equipment 28,640 30,900 2,260 8% 1,245 Short-term on-the-job training $19,366 $9.31
Laborers & Freight, Stock, & Material Movers, Hand 179,020 182,840 3,820 2% 6,140 Short-term on-the-job training $23,016 $11.07
Machine Feeders & Offbearers 10,330 8,830 -1,500 -15% 115 Short-term on-the-job training $26,191 $12.59
Packers & Packagers, Hand 36,520 36,480 -40 0% 605 Short-term on-the-job training $20,029 $9.63
Gas Compressor & Gas Pumping Station Operators 470 490 20 4% 15 Moderate-term on-the-job training $48,229 $23.19
Pump Operators, Ex. Wellhead Pumpers 1,610 1,600 -10 -1% 45 Moderate-term on-the-job training $38,297 $18.41
Wellhead Pumpers 5,230 5,190 -40 -1% 150 Moderate-term on-the-job training $44,309 $21.30
Refuse & Recyclable Material Collectors 9,380 11,240 1,860 20% 460 Short-term on-the-job training $28,053 $13.49
Tank Car, Truck, & Ship Loaders 1,260 1,250 -10 -1% 35 Moderate-term on-the-job training $36,882 $17.73
Material Moving Wkrs, All Other 5,010 5,030 20 0% 55 Moderate-term on-the-job training $31,182 $14.99

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