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The Texas Tribune-ProPublica Investigative Unit

Texas has spent billions of dollars on border security. But what taxpayers got in return is a mystery.

Since 2005, Texas Govs. Rick Perry and Greg Abbott have launched a multitude of widely publicized and costly border initiatives, which usually kicked off during their reelection campaigns or while they were considering bids for higher office.

By Lomi Kriel and Perla Trevizo, The Texas Tribune and ProPublica, and Andrew Rodriguez Calderón, The Marshall Project

Department of Public Safety agents arrest an undocumented migrant for trespassing private property as part of Operation Lone Star in Kinney County near Brackettville, Texas on Nov. 9, 2021. 
Verónica G. Cárdenas for ProPublica/The Texas Tribune

2005: Operation Linebacker

2006: Operation Rio Grande

2007: Operation Wrangler 

2007: Operation Border Star 

2012: Operation Drawbridge 

2013: Operation Strong Safety

2014: Operation Strong Safety II

2015: Operation Secure Texas 

2021: Operation Lone Star 

A military vehicle next to the riverbank that was recently cleared up can be seen in Del Rio, Texas on Nov. 10, 2021. There were approximately 15,000 migrants, mostly Haitians, under the bridge waiting to seek asylum in September.
Verónica G. Cárdenas for ProPublica/The Texas Tribune

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Immigration Department of Public Safety Greg Abbott Investigations Rick Perry