The office of the lieutenant governor was first established under the Texas Constitution of 1845. The lieutenant governor was elected and served two years until 1972, when voters approved a constitutional amendment to increase the term to four years, according to the Handbook of Texas Online, a publication of the Texas State Historical Association.
The salary, set by the constitution, is the same as that of a state senator — $7,200 per year — when the lieutenant governor serves as the presiding officer of the Senate, and the same as the governor's — $150,000 per year — when he assumes the governor's duties.
A lieutenant governor must be at least 30 years old, a U.S. citizen, and a Texas resident for five years prior to the election. The lieutenant governor acts as governor in case of the governor's death, resignation, removal from office, or absence from the state. He serves as presiding officer of the Senate, appoints committees of the Senate, and casts the deciding vote in case of a tie.